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浅析:管壳式换热器的失效、破坏后成因与控制

浅析:管壳式换热器的失效、破坏后成因与控制

浅析:管壳式换热器的失效、破坏后成因与控制

ZAIGELEIHUANREQIDEZHIZAOYUSHIYONGZHONG,GUANQIAOSHIHUANREQIZHANJUZHEHEXINDEDIWEI,YUANYINZAIYUQINAIGAOWENGAOYA、CHUANREXISHUGAO、ANZHUANGFANGBIAN、JIEGOUJINCOU、SHENGCHANCHENGBENDIDENGTEDIAN。TONGSHI,YINWEIQIJIEGOUDEDUOYANGXINGYIJIYINGYONGYAOQIUDEFUZAXINGYUANYIN,CONGERYINQIHUANREQIGEZHONGXINGSHIDESHIXIAOQINGKUANG。RU:HUANREGUANYUGUANBANZHIJIANDELIANJIECHURONGYICHUXIANSHIXIAO,TONGTIYUGUANBANZHIJIANDEHANFENGCHUYERONGYISHIXIAO。HUANREGUANCHUXIANZHENDONGXIANXIANG、REYINGLIHUOSHIFUJIAYINGLIYIJIGONGZUOMEIJIEDEFUSHIXINGDENGQINGKUANGJUNHUIDAOZHIHUANREQIBUFENHUOSHIZHENGTIXINGDESHIXIAOHOUGUO。

1换热管与管板之间的连接

1.1机械滚胀法

JIXIEGUNZHANGFA,YIBANHUIZAOCHENGHUANREGUANCHUXIANGUOZHANGHUOSHIQIANZHANGDEQINGKUANG, HUANREGUANDENEIBIRONGYICHUXIANJIAGONGYINGHUAXIANXIANG。RUXIATU1SUOSHIWEIZHANGJIEFANGSHI,ZHUYAOYINGYONGZAIKANGLATUONENGLIHEMIFENGXINGGAODEHUANJINGZHONG,BUKEYIZAIGAOWENHUANJINGZHONGGONGZUO。ZAICHUXIANWENCHAGAIBIANSHI,ZHANGJIEWEIZHIDECANYUYINGLIHUIMANMANXIAOSHI,JIANGDILEKANGLATUOLIHEMIFENGXINGNENG,CONGERZAOCHENGHUANREGUANHEGUANBANZHIJIANLIANJIEDESHIXIAO。TADEYOUDIANZAIYUZHANGJIEDEJIEGOUBIJIAOJIANDAN,YOULIYUHUANREGUANDEGENGHUANHEXIUBU,TONGCHANGYUNYONGZAISHEJIYALIBUGAOYU4.0 MPaYIJISHEJIWENDUBUGAOYU300 ℃DETIAOJIANXIA。


TU1  ZHANGJIEFANGSHISHIYITU

1.2液压胀接

正片白小姐六选一肖YEYAZHANGJIEFA,SHIGUANBANYUHUANREGUANDELIANJIEWEIZHIYINGLIFENBUJUNYUN,JUYOULAODONGQIANGDUDI、SHENGCHANXIAOLVGAO、MIFENGXINGLIANGHAODENGYOUDIAN,DANSHIDUIYUGUANBANDEGUANKONGYIJIKAICAODEJINGDUYAOQIUTEBIEGAO

1.3爆破胀管

正片白小姐六选一肖BAOPOZHANGGUAN,ZHIDESHILIYONGBAOZHASHICHANSHENGDEJINGXIANGLI,SHIDEHUANREGUANZHANGJIN,YUCITONGSHI,LIYONGBAOZHASHICHANSHENGDEZHOUXIANGLI,JIANGGUANNEICANZHASHUAICHUGUANWAI。ZHANGJIEFASHIYONGYUWUJULIEZHENDONG,WUGUODADEWENDUBODONG,WUMINGXIANDEYINGLIFUSHIQINGXIANGDECHANGHE。

1.4焊接法

HUANREGUANYUGUANBANRUCAIYONGHANJIEXINGSHIRUXIATU2SUOSHISHI, HUANREGUANHEGUANBANHANFENGLIANJIECHUCHANSHENGCANYUYINGLIZHUANGTAI,CONGERZAOCHENGYINGLIFUSHIHEFUSHIPILAO,HUANREGUANHEGUANBANDELIANJIECHUYICHANSHENGSHIXIAOXIELOU。YINERZAISHIHANSHI,XUDUIGUANDUANJIAYIDAMO,QINGCHUHANJIEFANWEIDEWURANWU。HANJIEFABUSHIYONGYUJIAODAZHENDONG、YOUFENGXIFUSHIQINGXIANGDECHANGHE。


TU2  HANJIEFANGSHISHIYITU

2管壳式换热器失效与受到破坏的成因分析

FUSHISHIGUANQIAOSHIHUANREQIZUICHANGJIANDESHIXIAOXINGSHI。FUSHIZUICHANGJIANDEBUWEIWEIHUANREGUANYUGUANBANLIANJIECHU,SHOUDAOFUSHIDECHENGYINRUXIA:GUANQIAOCHENGGONGZUOJIEZHIZISHENDESUANJIANXINGCUNZAIZHEFUSHIXING,QIAOTIHUOSHIHUANREGUANZHONGDELAYINGLI,HUANREGUANHEGUANBANZHIJIANCUNZAIZHEFENGXIDENGQINGKUANG。SHANGSHUQINGKUANGJUNHUIJIAKUAIFUSHIDEJINDU,CONGERZAOCHENGHUANREQIDESHIXIAO。

2.1工作介质腐蚀

正片白小姐六选一肖RUOGONGZUOJIEZHINEIRONGJIEYIDINGHANLIANGDEYANG、DAN、QINGYULIUDENGYUANSU,YIBANHUIZAOCHENGHUANREQIDESHIXIAO。XUANZEHELIDEMEIJIEJUEDINGZHEHUANREQIDESHIYONGSHOUMING,BUTONGDEFUSHIXINGJIEZHIYAOXUANYONGXIANGDUIYINGDEYUFANGDUICE。RU:SHIYONGHUISHOUXIAOSUANWEIQIZUOWEIRELIANGDEFEIREGUOLU,YINWEIXIAOSUANWEIQIZHONGZHUYAOCHENGFENSHIDANHUAWU, DANGQICHUYUYIDINGDEWENDUYUYALIHUANJINGZHONG,DANHETIEQITABUSHAODEHEJINYUANSUHUICHANSHENGYINGQIECUIDEDANHUAWU,CONGERZAOCHENGGANGCAICHUXIANDANHUADEXIANXIANG,ZUIZHONGJIANGDILIXUEXINGNENGQURUO。TEBIESHIGAOWENQITIDERUKOUCHU,GONGZUOJIEZHIFUSHIHUIZAOCHENGGUANBANDEBIAOMIAN、GUANBANYUHUANREGUANZHIJIANDELIANJIECHUYIJIGUANBANWAIBUDEHUANREGUANDUANMIANYOUYUDANHUADEYUANGUERCHUXIANXIELOUQINGKUANG。HAIYANGHUANJINGZHONGSHIYONGDESHEBEIMIANLINZHEGENGJIAFUZADEFUSHIQINGKUANG,RU:XIYANGFUSHI、HAISHENGWUFUSHIDENG。JINSHUFUSHIHAIYUHAISHUIDEYANGHANLIANG、WENDU、PH、RONGYECHENGFEN、HAISHUIDELIUSUDENGYINSUYOUGUAN。ZITONGDUIHAISHUILIUSUFUSHIZUIMINGAN,B10TONGHEJINDUIJIARUHAISHAHOUDECHONGSHUAFUSHIYEHENMINGAN。DABUFENTONGHEJINZAILIUDONGHAISHUIJUNCUNZAILINJIELIUSU。RU:HAISHUILIUSUCHAOGUO4.5MI/MIAO,  B30TONGHEJINFUSHISUDUFEICHANGDEKUAI。TONGHEJINZAIHAISHUIHUANJINGZHONGHAIMIANLINZHETUOCHENGFENFUSHIQINGKUANG。

2.2应力腐蚀

YINGLIFUSHISHIZUIGUANGFANZUIYANZHONGDEYIZHONGSHIXIAOXINGSHI。QICHANSHENGDEJIBENTIAOJIANYOUSANDIAN:(1)MINGANCAIZHI,FASHENGYINGLIFUSHIZHUYAOSHIHEJIN,CHUNJINSHUJISHAOFASHENG。(2)TEDINGDEJIEZHI,RUSUANJIANYANRONGYE、HAISHUI、GONGYEDAQI、SHUIZHENGQIDENG(3)ZUGOUDELAYINGLI。GUANQIAOSHIHUANREQIZAIRECHULI、HANJIEYIJIJIAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANDECANYUYINGLI,SHEBEIZAIGONGZUOTIAOJIANXIACHENGSHOUWAIZAIHEERYINQIDEGONGZUOYINGLI,WENCHAYINQIDEREYINGLI,SHEBEI、BUJIANDEANZHUANGHEZHUANGPEIERYINQIDEYINGLIYIJIFUSHICHANWUTIJIXIAOYINGERYINQIDEYINGLIDENG。YINCI,YINGJISHIDIQINGCHUYINGLIFUSHIYINGXIANG。

2.3 缝隙腐蚀

正片白小姐六选一肖FENGXIFUSHISHIYINJINSHUYUFEIJINSHUZHIJIANHUOJINSHUYUJINSHUZHIJIANCUNFENGXI,SHIFENGXINEIJIEZHICHUYUZHILIUZHUANGTAIERYINQIFENGNEIJINSHUFUSHIJIASUDEYIZHONGJUBUFUSHIXINGTAI。FENGXIFUSHIDETIAOJIANSHIYINGJUYOUYIDINGDEFENGXI,QIKUANDUBIXUNENGSHIJIEZHIJINRUFENGNEI,TONGSHIYOUBIXUZHAIDAONENGSHIJIEZHIZAIFENGNEITINGZHI。YIBANFASHENGFENGXIFUSHIZUIMINGANDEFENGKUANWEI0.025mm~0.1mm。RUHUANREGUANYUGUANBANCAIYONGRUSHANGTU2SUOSHIHANJIESHI,GUANBANHEHUANREGUANZHIJIANCUNZAIZHEFENGXIWANGWANGJIUHUIFASHENGFENGXIFUSHI。YINCI,YINGJISHIDIGAISHANZHIZAOGONGYIJINLIANGBIMIANFENGXIDECUNZAI。

2.4腐蚀疲劳

正片白小姐六选一肖FUSHIHEXUNHUANZAIHEXIETONGZUOYONGXIAWANGWANGHUIFASHENGFUSHIPILAO,FUSHIHUANJINGZHONGYUNXINGDESHEBEIYAOJINGCHANGCHENGSHOUJIAOBIANZAIHE,HENSHAOYOUSHIJIGOUJIANZHICHENGSHOUDANXIANGJINGTAIFUZAI,FUSHIPILAOQIWEIXIANCHENGDUBIDANCHUNDEFUSHIHUOPILAOYAOYANZHONGDEDUO。YINCI,FENXIFUSHIPILAOSUNSHANGFASHENGFAZHANDEYUANYINHESUDU,JINERPINGGUSHEBEIDESHIYONGSHOUMINGHUOZHAODAOYOUXIAODEFUSHIPILAODUANLIEDEKONGZHICUOSHI,TIGAOSHEBEIYUNXINGDEKEKAOCHENGDU。

2.5点腐蚀

FUSHICHUXIANZAIJINSHUBIAOMIANHENXIAOQUYUBINGZHUBUSHENRUDAOJINSHUNEIBU,ERQITADABUFENBIAOMIANBUFASHENGFUSHIHUOFUSHIHENQINGWEIDEXINGTAI。CHANSHENGDIANSHIDETIAOJIAN:(1)DUOFASHENGZAIBIAOMIANSHENGCHENGDUNHUAMODEJINSHUHEHEJINSHANGHUOBIAOMIANYOUYINJIXINGDUCENGDEJINSHUSHANG。(2)WANGWANGYOUQINSHIXINGLUSULIZIYUYANGHUAJIGONGCUN。(3)DUIJIDINGDEJINSHU—JIEZHITIXI,CUNZAIYITEDINGDELINJIEDIANWEI,GAOYUCIDIANWEISHICAIFASHENGDIANSHI。

3管壳式换热器失效的控制方法

3.1结垢

GUANQIAOSHIHUANREQIZAICAOZUOYIDINGSHIJIANZHIHOU,RUOGUANBIDEJIEGOUFEICHANGDIMINGXIAN,NEIMECHUANRENENGLIJIUHUIRUOHUA,HUANREJIEZHIDECHUKOUWENDUWUFAYUZUICHUSHEJIDEGONGYICANSHUYAOQIUXIANGWENHE,WUGOUZAOCHENGGUANNEIJINGRIYIBIANXIAO,LIUSUZEDIZENG;YALISHOUSUNDIZENG。CISHI,YINGCAIYONGDINGQIXINGDELIULIANGJIANCE、YALIYUWENDUDENGDUOZHONGCAOZUOFANGSHILAIJIEDINGJIEGOUDEZHUANGKUANG。

3.2腐蚀与磨损

正片白小姐六选一肖WUGOU、HUANREJIEZHI、LIUTISUDUPIANDAYIJIDIANHUAXUEDENGYIXILIEYUANYINJUNHUIZAOCHENGHUANREQIQIAOTI、HUANREGUANYIJIWAIBUCHUXIANFUSHIYUMOSUN。QIAOTIYIBANCAIYONGCHAOSHENGBOCEHOUSHEBEIHUOSHIQITADEFEIPOHUAIXINGCEHOUSHEBEI,YOUWAIBUJIANCEYUPINGGUDEFANGSHIJIEDINGNENGGOUCHANSHENGFUSHIYUJIANBODENGQIAOTIJUTIBUWEI。HUANREGUANZAICHUXIANPOLIEZHIQIANDEFUSHIYUMOSUNZHUANGKUANGCAIYONGWOLIUTANSHANGFAJINXINGFENXI,XIANGXIFENXIHUANREGUANBIHOUJIANBOLIANG,TONGSHIYEDUIHUANREGUANQUEXIANDESHENDUJINXINGFENXI,TIQIANYUFANGBINGKONGZHIHUANREQIDESHIXIAO。

3.3泄漏

正片白小姐六选一肖HUANREGUANYINWEIFUSHIYIJIYOUDAOZHENDONGDENGYUANGUHUICHUXIANPOLIEDEXIANXIANG,GUANDUANYINWEIFUSHIYIJIGAOWENRUBIANDENG,ZAIJIASHANGPILAOPOHUAIDENGYUANGUCONGERZAOCHENGHUANREGUANHEGUANBANZHIJIANDELIANJIECHUCHUXIANXIELOU。YOUXIAODEKONGZHIFANGFA:ZAILIUTICHUKOUCHUQUYANG,FENXITADESEZE、ZHANDUYIJIBIZHONGDENGZHIBIAOLAICESHIGUANSHUDEXIELOUYUPOHUAIDECHENGDU。

3.4振动

HUANREGUANSHUHUIHEBENG、YASUOJIFASHENGGONGZHENDEQINGKUANG,HUIZHUANJIXIEHUIFASHENGZHIJIEMAIDONGDECHONGJI,LIUTIHUICHANSHENGYIDINGDEZHENDONG,TONGGUOCAIYONGZHENDONGCESHISHEBEIHUOZHENDONGSHENGXIANGDEFANGSHILAITUIDUANZHENDONGDEQINGKUANG。

3.5内孔焊技术

YOUXIEHUANREQISHIGONGZUOZAIGAOWENYUFUSHIXINGYINGLIHUANJINGZHONGDE,HUANREGUANYUGUANBANRUCAIYONGSHANGTU2FANGSHIHANJIESHI,GUANBANHEHUANREGUANNEIBUHUICUNZAIZHEJIANXI,TONGSHIHANFENGYUDAOGAOWENWAIJIEFUSHIXINGLIUTIZAIHECHONGJIYINGXIANG,HENRONGYICHUXIANFUSHIKAILIEDEQINGKUANG,CONGERZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGSUODUANLESHEBEIDESHIYONGSHOUMING。WEILEJIANGDIGAOWENFUSHIXINGLIUTIDUIGUANBANHANFENGSUODAILAIDESUNHAI,BIXUGAISHANHANJIEGONGYILAIJIAYIKONGZHI,YOUHUAGUANBANHEGUANSHUZHIJIANDELIANJIEXINGSHI。KEYIXUANZEDUIJIEHANFENGXINGCHENGDUIJIEJIETOUHUOSUODIJIETOUNEIKONGHANJIEGOU。DUIJIEHANFENGXINGCHENGDUIJIEJIETOUNEIKONGHANXINGSHIRUXIATU3SUOSHI。NEIKONGHANJIETOUJISHUNENGGOUYOUXIAODIJIANGDIHUANREGUANHEGUANBANJIETOUCHUSUOCUNZAIDEYINGLIFUSHIHEJIANXIFUSHIDENGQINGKUANG。


TU3   GUANBANXINGSHISHIYITU

4结论

通过上述分析,管壳式换热器的失效、破坏与工作介质、材料、设备结构、设备操作、流体载荷等多种因素存在着内在的关联性,也是上述因素的共同作用。因此,在设计管壳式换热器时应考虑材料的选用、管板的强度、换热管强度和稳定性、制造工艺、设备结构、设备操作和使用环境状况及工作介质性质等各类影响因素,达到有效控制管壳式换热器失效目的。

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